Crude oil distillation products pdf

Crude oil processing is the first step in the petroleum refinery. This distillation occurs in the refinery crude unit. The objectives of the unit include rejection of major contaminants and an initial cut of the crude oil into streams for further processing. Understanding the fundamentals of crude

www.api.org The oil refining process: fractional distillation Crude oil (also called petroleum) is a mixture of different hydrocarbons. Many useful products can be made from these hydrocarbons. But first the useful ones must be extracted from the crude oil and separated from one another. How is this done? Crude Oil Assay Indicates distribution quantity & quality of crude oil feedstock Definitions based upon boiling point temperature ranges Represents expectedproducts from crude & vacuum distillation Completeness of data depends upon source Quality measures Specific / API gravity Sulfur content Octane number The crude oil distillation system consists of an atmospheric distillation unit, in which crude oil is separated into more valuable products, and a heat exchanger network (HEN) which pre-heats the crude oil before it enters the column. The atmospheric distillation unit and the HEN interact with each other, making the retrofit of crude oil Physical and Chemical Properties of Crude Oil and Oil Products 1- Density, Specific Gravity, and API Gravity Density is defined as mass per unit volume of a fluid. Density is a state function and for a pure compound depends on both temperature and pressure and is shown by ρ. Liquid

Petroleum refining processes are the chemical engineering processes and other facilities used in petroleum refineries to transform crude oil into useful products 

further refined. Fractional distillation begins when the crude oil, which is a mixture of different hydrocarbons, is put into a high-pressure steam boiler. This is a tank that makes the oil boil and turn to vapor, much like boiling water turns into water vapor. The crude oil is heated to temperatures up to 1112° Fahrenheit. Industrial distillation columns do not provide perfectly sharp separations Initial calculations using crude oil assays assume that all materials at a certain boiling point goes to one product or another Imperfect separations result in light-ends & heavy-ends “tails” in adjacent products Presence of tails complicate the definition of Industrial distillation columns do not provide perfectly sharp separations Initial calculations using crude oil assays assume that all materials at a certain boiling point goes to one product or another Imperfect separations result in light‐ends & heavy‐ends “tails” in adjacent products Crude oil is a fossil fuel, it was made naturally from decaying plants and animals living in ancient seas millions of years ago -most places you can find crude oil were once sea beds. 3.1 A crude oil distillation is performed to obtain the naphtha cut at 204°C (400°F). The distillation method was adapted from Test Method D86for the distillation of petro-leum products. The naphtha cut is washed with caustic, repeatedly when necessary, until all hydrogen sulfide is re-moved. The naphtha cut, free of hydrogen sulfide, is then • Crude oil distillation is more complicated than product distillation, in part because crude oils contain water, salts, and suspended solids. • Step 1 in the refining process is to remove these contaminants so as to reduce corrosion, plugging, and fouling of equipment and to prevent poisoning catalysts in processing units.

Industrial distillation columns do not provide perfectly sharp separations Initial calculations using crude oil assays assume that all materials at a certain boiling point goes to one product or another Imperfect separations result in light-ends & heavy-ends “tails” in adjacent products Presence of tails complicate the definition of

Industrial distillation columns do not provide perfectly sharp separations Initial calculations using crude oil assays assume that all materials at a certain boiling point goes to one product or another Imperfect separations result in light‐ends & heavy‐ends “tails” in adjacent products Crude oil is a fossil fuel, it was made naturally from decaying plants and animals living in ancient seas millions of years ago -most places you can find crude oil were once sea beds. 3.1 A crude oil distillation is performed to obtain the naphtha cut at 204°C (400°F). The distillation method was adapted from Test Method D86for the distillation of petro-leum products. The naphtha cut is washed with caustic, repeatedly when necessary, until all hydrogen sulfide is re-moved. The naphtha cut, free of hydrogen sulfide, is then • Crude oil distillation is more complicated than product distillation, in part because crude oils contain water, salts, and suspended solids. • Step 1 in the refining process is to remove these contaminants so as to reduce corrosion, plugging, and fouling of equipment and to prevent poisoning catalysts in processing units. If a crude oil is buried deeply and for a long time, extensive breaking apart of the carbon chains can occur. At the same time, most of the sulfur compounds in the oil are broken down. Therefore an ‘old-deep’ crude oil has low viscosity, low density, and very low sulfur content. This combination of properties makes the old-deep crudes the most

Crude oil is a fossil fuel, it was made naturally from decaying plants and animals living in ancient seas millions of years ago -most places you can find crude oil were once sea beds.

further refined. Fractional distillation begins when the crude oil, which is a mixture of different hydrocarbons, is put into a high-pressure steam boiler. This is a tank that makes the oil boil and turn to vapor, much like boiling water turns into water vapor. The crude oil is heated to temperatures up to 1112° Fahrenheit. Industrial distillation columns do not provide perfectly sharp separations Initial calculations using crude oil assays assume that all materials at a certain boiling point goes to one product or another Imperfect separations result in light-ends & heavy-ends “tails” in adjacent products Presence of tails complicate the definition of Industrial distillation columns do not provide perfectly sharp separations Initial calculations using crude oil assays assume that all materials at a certain boiling point goes to one product or another Imperfect separations result in light‐ends & heavy‐ends “tails” in adjacent products

Crude oil is composed of a complex mix of hydrocarbons, so the products formed from fractional distillation will also be a mix of these complex molecules. However, the basic categories of distilled products are: Crude oil virtually runs our daily

The oil refining process: fractional distillation Crude oil (also called petroleum) is a mixture of different hydrocarbons. Many useful products can be made from these hydrocarbons. But first the useful ones must be extracted from the crude oil and separated from one another. How is this done? Crude Oil Assay Indicates distribution quantity & quality of crude oil feedstock Definitions based upon boiling point temperature ranges Represents expectedproducts from crude & vacuum distillation Completeness of data depends upon source Quality measures Specific / API gravity Sulfur content Octane number

Crude oil processing is the first step in the petroleum refinery. This distillation occurs in the refinery crude unit. The objectives of the unit include rejection of major contaminants and an initial cut of the crude oil into streams for further processing. Understanding the fundamentals of crude www.api.org The oil refining process: fractional distillation Crude oil (also called petroleum) is a mixture of different hydrocarbons. Many useful products can be made from these hydrocarbons. But first the useful ones must be extracted from the crude oil and separated from one another. How is this done?